© 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. The study focuses on parental perceptions of causes of child labour in rural and urban areas of Ghana. Over population, poverty, parental illiteracy, lack of proper education, urbanization and availability of cheap child labour are some common causes of wide-spread child labour. This paper recommends the adoption of policies that would address WFCL. For poorer households, child labour is a negative coping mechanism and most of the children are involved in agriculture and fishing industries. But it said the proportion of children from agricultural households in cocoa growing areas that are engaged in child labour in the cocoa sector across Ivory Coast and Ghana had increased to 45% in 2018/19 from 31% in 2008/09. Ghana again questioned the data in the new report, released on Monday after the US Department of Labor appointed a group of independent experts to conduct a review. The study focuses on parental perceptions of causes of child labour in rural and urban areas of Ghana. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Some 120,000 children under the age of 18 are thought to have been coerced into taking up arms as child soldiers, or military porters, messengers, cooks or sex slaves in Africa. Mostly, all parental participants highlighted socialisation/culture as the main cause of child labour, while also pointing to other causes such as poverty and lack of mechanisation. We understand child labour as both a symptom and a self-perpetuating cause of poverty. Save for the ongoing education and sensitization in the country, lots of families in Ghana will freely and willingly give their children to join hard labor to learn manual jobs through apprenticeship. However, children in Ghana continue to engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in fishing and cocoa harvesting, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Low aspirations by parents and children is a major cause of child labour because in such a situation, being employed in a local factory, or selling grocery in the streets is the normal way of life. Ploughing (above), fertilizer, pesticide application and harvesting routinely involve children with their families. This is twice as common in rural areas. Whilst child labour by both boys and girls takes many different forms, the elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour (WFCL) as defined by Article 3 of the ILO Convention No. Households in cocoa growing areas face the realities of rural poverty, and parents may put their children to work, and keep them out of school, to reduce labour costs on the family farms. It was also found that there is a trade-off between child working and schooling decisions. The link between economic deprivation and child labour must be considered. The research is grounded on Concurrent Parallel mixed methods research design. 26 February 2019. Additionally, policy-makers and NGOs must consider the link between economic deprivation and child labour when implementing programmes designed to combat the problem. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. It is a challenge and long-term goal in many countries to abolish all forms of child labour. The study focuses on parental perceptions of causes of child labour in rural and urban areas of Ghana. between Ghana and other countries, trafficking within the country is more prevalent than transnational trafficking and majority of these victims are children who according to a survey report in 2003 by the Ghana Statistical Services are numbering around 1.27million, who are engaged in child labour.1. The study focuses on parental perceptions of the causes of child labour. The Ministry of Employment and Labour Relations says the statistics released in August 2014, represented an increase over that of the 2003 Ghana Child Labour Survey (GCLS 2003) of 1.27 million child labourers, out of a population of six million children. Causes of child labour: Perceptions of rural and urban parents in Ghana, Commission for Human Rights and Administrative Justice, Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, The United Nations Children and Educational Fund, The United States Agency for International Development. Mars said in a statement that it had committed $1bn to a responsible sourcing strategy and called for legislation to address the root causes of child labour on West African cocoa farms. In Ghana poverty is one major cause of child labor. This paper recommends the adoption of policies that would address WFCL. The other cause of child trafficking in Ghana is explained by the cultural practices. Much theoretical and empirical evidence is presented to argue that child labour has a multiplicity of causes including cultural practices, socialisation, poverty, and lack of mechanisation of work. Child labour has a multiplicity of causes including socialisation and poverty. The levels were higher than in 2010 when companies including Mars, Hershey, Nestle and Cargill agreed to reduce the worst forms of child labour in Ghana … The use of child labour has risen in cocoa farms in Ghana and Ivory Coast over the past decade despite industry promises to reduce it, academics said on Monday, largely supporting earlier findings that were questioned by both states. Eighty-eight percent of them work on farms; another 2.3 percent in fishing. 28 November 2018. The major reasons being poverty and overpopulation. Especially in These two go hand in hand. Poor families tend to have more children, and when earnings of a sole person do not suffice, young children are forced to take up jobs wherever they can. (Redirected from Child labour in Ghana) Agriculture is a major employer of child labour in Africa. Celebrating 30 years of child rights Visit the page. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Marking progress against child labour Global estimates and trends 2000 2012 / International Labour Office, International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) - Geneva: ILO, 2013. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The research is grounded on qualitative research techniques by specifically utilising in-depth interviews, focus groups, and participant observation to collect the necessary data for the study. 182 is a priority. Child labor (regular participation in the labor force to earn a living or supplement household income) prevents children from participating in school. This paper recommends that child labour must be tackled in a coordinated manner on a cross-sectoral basis and there is the need to adopt policies that would address the category of work that falls within worst forms of child labour (WFCL). Another important cause mentioned by the experts is the overall social and economic situation in the country. The study focuses on parental perceptions of the causes of child labour. The link between economic deprivation and child labour must be considered. Child labour is a serious problem in Ghana, where about one-third of children between the ages of seven and 14 work full-time. Current causes of global child labor are similar to its causes in the U.S. 100 years ago, including poverty, limited access to education, repression of workers’ rights, and limited prohibitions on child labor. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Half the victims of child labour come from the regions, with most being of school-going age. The convention calls for immediate prohibition of the WFCL, enacting laws, regulations and standards. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Press release. Work that is likely to harm the health, safety, or morals of children is categorized as hazardous by the ILO. Of all children in Ghana aged 5 to17 years, about 21 per cent are involved in child labour and 14 per cent are engaged in hazardous forms of labour. GHANA INTER-AGENCY COUNTRY REPORT |Introduction 2 Child labour has a multiplicity of causes including socialisation and poverty. A major study into progress on industry measures put in place to tackle child labour in key cocoa supply chains in Ghana and Ivory Coast, has found that while inroads have been made, there is a significant volume of work remaining, writes Neill Barston. Poor parents who can hardly fend for themselves and their children send their under aged children to … Causes of child labour: Perceptions of rural and urban parents in Ghana, Commission for Human Rights and Administrative Justice, Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, The United Nations Children and Educational Fund, The United States Agency for International Development. In this approach, the data gathering happened in Phases 1 and 2 of the research study at the research sites in rural areas, and urban areas. Lives of little ones are destroyed, when child labor is employed. New data reveals situation for children in Ghana - more progress needed for an equitable Ghana (Child Labour in Africa, 2006) Children works at earlier age in Ghana and farm labor predominates. Press release. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.05.034. The 60 participants included government officials, representatives from NGOs, and both parents whose children were involved in child labour and parents whose children were not involved. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Most illiterate parents do not understand the need for the wholesome physical, cognitive, and … The 60 participants included government officials, representatives from NGOs, and both parents whose children were involved in child labour and parents whose children were not involved. Economic hardships and family dysfunction can therefore be named as the main causes of child labour. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.05.034. Child labor persists even though laws and standards to eliminate it exist. This paper finds that the socio-cultural contexts of child labour play a critical role in children's involvement in farming in the rural area while poverty also contributes to children's engagement in artisanal fishing work in the slum urban communities in Ghana. Much theoretical and empirical evidence is presented to argue that child labour has a multiplicity of causes including cultural practices, socialisation, poverty, and lack of mechanisation of work. Many people in Takoradi are unaware of the alarming effects of child labour in Ghana. Child labour; the effect on child, causes and remedies to the revolving menace 1 Introduction For many years, child labour has been one of the biggest obstacles to social development. In urban areas, the same category of causes of child labour were recognised by parental participants, with poverty being the foremost cause. Child labour in Africa is generally defined based on two factors: type of work and minimum appropriate age of the work. In the Lake Volta region, children as young as four are sent to live with relatives in hope of learning a trade. To these types of children and parents, success only belongs to a certain region or group of people. Downloadable (with restrictions)! Additionally, policy-makers and NGOs must consider the link between economic deprivation and child labour when implementing programmes designed to combat the problem. In this approach, the data gathering happened in Phases 1 and 2 of the research study at the research sites in rural areas, and urban areas. The research is grounded on qualitative research techniques by specifically utilising in-depth interviews, focus groups, and participant observation to collect the necessary data for the study. The research is grounded on qualitative research techniques by specifically utilising in-depth interviews, focus groups, and participant observation to collect the necessary data for the study. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This paper finds that the socio-cultural contexts of child labour play a critical role in children's involvement in farming in the rural area while poverty also contributes to children's engagement in artisanal fishing work in the slum urban communities in Ghana. In Ghana, one in six children aged six to 14 are involved in child labor. Negative Effects Of Child Labor In Ghana 1583 Words | 7 Pages. New Year’s Babies: Over 2200 children will be born in Ghana on New Year’s Day - UNICEF Visit the page. Causes of Child Labor. This paper recommends that child labour must be tackled in a coordinated manner on a cross-sectoral basis and there is the need to adopt policies that would address the category of work that falls within worst forms of child labour (WFCL). This is one of the famous slogans that shows the severity and the cruelty of child labor. 1. We found evidence to support the claim that child labor in Ghana follows an intergenerational pattern, thus parents who were once child laborers are more likely to cause their children to work. Child labor refers to work that threatens children’s health and safety or deprives their right to education (Herring). Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The root causes of child labour include illiteracy, poverty and lack of information. 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