Annual Plant Reviews, Volume 23 A much clearer picture is now emerging of the fine structure of the plant cuticle and its surface, the composition of cuticular waxes and the biosynthetic pathways leading to them. The plant cuticle, composed of cutin and waxes, is a hydrophobic layer coating the aerial organs of terrestrial plants and playing a critical role in limiting water loss. Osmophores and floral fragrance in Additionally, a third Arabidopsis half transporter, ABCG13, was shown to be required for cutin deposition in flowers (Panikashvili et al., 2011). The cuticle is a structure that incorporates numerous functions of essential import- ance for plant life (Kerstiens, 1996b). An example of the chemical and structural heterogeneity of plant cuticles is … However, despite the atypical composition of its cutin, Arabidopsis has proven to be an important model for deciphering the pathway of cutin biosynthesis, and more recently, it was discovered that the cutin of its floral organs is more typical, in that it is composed primarily of 10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid (Li-Beisson et al., 2009). While mechanical rupture may be sufficient for cuticle penetration, particularly of thinner cuticles (Tenberge, 2007), most fungal pathogens also secrete cutinases, a class of small, nonspecific esterases that hydrolyze the cutin polyester and release free cutin monomers (Longhi and Cambillau, 1999). Overexpression of this gene led to glossy leaves with a greater wax load than the wild type and lower transpiration, although this was likely due to a reduced density of stomata rather than the wax phenotype (Aharoni et al., 2004). The plant cuticle represents the initial contact surface between microorganisms and the plant. For reference, Table II provides a list of the corresponding genes, as well as others discussed in this review. blakelybenton123. A model was proposed wherein CER7 is involved in the degradation of a small RNA species that negatively regulates the CER3 transcript. Buy Annual Plant Reviews: Biology of the Plant Cuticle by Riederer, Markus, Muller, Caroline online on Amazon.ae at best prices. Here, we summarize this pathway based on recent molecular genetic and biochemical studies using Arabidopsis and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Annual Plant Reviews, Biology of the Plant Cuticle Markus Riederer , Caroline Muller Annual Plant Reviews, Volume 23 A much clearer picture is now emerging of the fine structure of the plant cuticle and its surface, the composition of cuticular waxes and the biosynthetic pathways leading to them. leaves and young shoots. Cloning of the mutated gene revealed that it encodes a protein of the GDSL-motif lipase/hydrolase (GDSL) family, which localizes to the developing cuticle (Girard et al., 2012; Yeats et al., 2012b). 23) Volume 23 Edition by Markus Riederer (Editor), Caroline Muller (Editor) ISBN-13: 978-1405132688 has cuticular wax similar to vascular plants, with distinct composition on leafy gametophyte, calyptra and sporophyte capsule surfaces 1983. Joseph T. Wells, CPA, CFE, is the founder and Chairman of … The acyltransferases that synthesize acyl-CoA are encoded by the LACS family, which consists of nine members in Arabidopsis, and both LACS1 and LACS2 appear to be responsible for C16 cutin monomer biosynthesis (Lü et al., 2009). This layer may, as in the arthropods, contain pigments and chitin; in humans the cuticle is the epidermis. Plant cuticle structure. Description. A Synthetic Community Approach Reveals Plant Genotypes Affecting the Phyllosphere Microbiota. Bar = 50 μm. Biology of the Plant Cuticle (Annual Plant Reviews, Vol. Nevertheless, based on the discovery of this effect, surfaces with high degrees of hydrophobicity and microscopic texture have been employed as effective biomimetic technical materials (Bhushan, 2012), and improved self-cleaning surfaces in agricultural crops may be a productive avenue of research. The fine structure of the plant cuticle. At micromolar concentrations, these compounds induce the production of hydrogen peroxide and other defense responses (Schweizer et al., 1996; Kauss et al., 1999). www.plantphysiol.org/cgi/doi/10.1104/pp.113.222737. . First, the mechanism of intracellular and extracellular transport of wax and cutin precursors remains unknown, although key ABC transporters required for their export across the plasma membrane have been identified (Pighin et al., 2004; Bird et al., 2007; Chen et al., 2011). In addition to absorbing light, the plant cuticle can reflect light to some degree, presumably depending on the abundance of epicuticular wax crystals. Introduction: Biology of the plant cuticle Markus Riederer, Julius-von-Sachs-Institut fur Biowissenschaften, Universitat Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany 2. Changes in foliar epicuticular wax and photosynthesis metabolism in evergreen woody species under different soil water availability. Free primary alcohols can occur in the wax mixture, or they can be esterified to a fatty acid in order to form wax esters. Biology of the plant cuticle. The past decade has seen considerable progress in assembling models for the biosynthesis of its two major components, the polymer cutin and cuticular waxes. Louis, MO. While the mechanism of SERRATE action as a suppressor of cuticle fusions remains unclear, this result suggests the existence of a cuticle integrity pathway that is integrated with epidermal developmental programs. C, Transmission electron micrograph image of an Arabidopsis stem epidermal cell wall and cuticle. Biology of the plant cuticle by , 2006, Blackwell Pub. While our understanding of cuticle biosynthesis at the molecular level remains incomplete, recent progress in deciphering these pathways is bringing us closer than ever to an ability to selectively modify cuticle properties in order to improve agricultural productivity. DCR encodes a protein of the BAHD acyltransferase family that localizes to the cytoplasm, and it has been proposed that it may be involved in acyl transfer of cutin monomers to form precursor intermediates or oligomeric structures (Panikashvili et al., 2009). In maize (Zea mays), the HD-ZIP IV gene OUTER CELL LAYER1 (OCL1) was shown to be an epidermis-specific positive regulator of wax biosynthesis, although cutin was not quantified in plants overexpressing this gene (Javelle et al., 2010). In 20 backcrossed families, CWP was inversely correlated with the amount of alkanes in the wax but not the total amount of wax, and the more rapidly desiccating parent had three times the wax coverage as the parent that exhibited low postharvest water loss (Parsons et al., 2012). Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Plant Physiology. A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants. Functional anatomy reveals secretory activity in papillose anthers of a buzz‐pollinated Solanum species (Cyphomandra clade – Solanaceae). B, Scanning electron micrograph image of an Arabidopsis leaf epidermis and overlying cuticle, seen in cross section. Most recently, two breakthroughs in the long-sought molecular bases of alkane formation and polyester synthesis have allowed construction of nearly complete biosynthetic pathways for both waxes and cutin. The fusion zones are often marked by two adjacent polysaccharide cell walls with no visible cuticle separating the two organs, although the fused epidermal layers maintain their identity, as indicated by the differentiation of internal nonfunctional stomata within fusion zones (Sieber et al., 2000). 1. Esterification of a single hydroxyl would result in a linear polymer, while esterification of both hydroxyl groups would generate branched structures (Fig. It consists of lipid. The efficiency of this self-cleaning mechanism, termed the “lotus effect,” varies between species and during organ ontogeny, but it has been correlated with the abundance of epicuticular wax crystals that repel water and allow a pocket of air to form beneath the droplets (Barthlott and Neinhuis, 1997). Future work involving the identification of such a small RNA species and other components of this pathway will be especially intriguing, since no known plant small RNA species mapped to the CER7-dependent region of the CER3 promoter (Lam et al., 2012). The protein is localized in the outer cell wall of the epidermis below the cuticle, which led the authors to propose that BDG may be involved in cutin polymerization, although the increased amounts of polymeric cutin in the mutant would argue against this (Kurdyukov et al., 2006a). ↵2 Present address: Energy Biosciences Institute, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720. Most of these transport processes are poorly understood, although trafficking of both wax and cutin precursors across the plasma membrane has been shown to depend on ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Given the ER localization of wax and cutin biosynthetic processes, the authors proposed a role for CER9 in the homeostasis of key cuticle biosynthetic enzyme levels. This observation is further corroborated by studies of the maize mutant glossy1, which does not accumulate aldehydes in its wax complement. Although the specific sequence of all intracellular biosynthetic steps will require additional characterization of the substrate specificity of each enzyme, biochemical characterization of Arabidopsis bifunctional GPATs indicates that they have a strong preference for ω-hydroxylated acyl-CoA, suggesting that hydroxylation precedes the transfer to glycerol (Yang et al., 2012). For example, the arthropods’ cuticle is the outermost covering above the epidermis and that which forms the exoskeleton. Phylogenetic analysis of CD1 and homologous genes indicates that despite belonging to a very large gene family, the subfamily of GDSLs represented by CD1 is relatively small and well conserved, with sequences represented across diverse taxa of land plants (Volokita et al., 2011). Confocal laser scanning microscopy elucidation of the micromorphology of the leaf cuticle and analysis of its chemical composition. Qingqing Li, Baoliang Chen, Organic Pollutant Clustered in the Plant Cuticular Membranes: Visualizing the Distribution of Phenanthrene in Leaf Cuticle Using Two-Photon Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy, Environmental Science & Technology, 10.1021/es404976c, 48, 9, (4774-4781), (2014). Needle browning and death in the flagged crown of Abies mariesii in the timberline ecotone of the alpine region in central Japan. International Journal of Food Properties. Recently, two transcription factors, MYB106 and MYB16, were identified as regulators of cuticle biosynthesis that function in a similar manner to WIN1/SHN1 (Oshima et al., 2013). Apoplastic LTPs have been proposed to play a role, although genetic or biochemical evidence for their involvement in transport is generally lacking (Yeats and Rose, 2008). Plus, free two-day shipping for six months when you sign up for Amazon Prime for Students. Here, we review recent progress in the biochemistry and molecular biology of cuticle synthesis and function and highlight some of the major questions that will drive future research in this field. in Oxford, UK, . Ames, Iowa. D, Light microscopy image showing the cuticle of a mature green-stage tomato fruit stained with Sudan Red and the polysaccharide cell walls stained with Alcian Blue. Ed. The microscopic structure of the cuticle is often divided into two domains based on histochemical staining and their presumed chemical composition: a cutin-rich domain with embedded polysaccharides, which is referred to as the “cuticular layer,” and an overlying layer that is less abundant in polysaccharides but enriched in waxes, referred to as the “cuticle proper” (Fig. Conversely, the Arabidopsis lacs2 mutant and cutinase overexpressers exhibited no alteration in their susceptibility to a range of other fungal pathogens (Bessire et al., 2007), and the lacs2 mutation also increased susceptibility to a normally avirulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae (Tang et al., 2007). 2). Cutan is rich in ether and C-C bonds, but its structure is otherwise unknown, and it appears to be restricted to relatively few extant species (Gupta et al., 2006). The moss A plant cuticle is a protecting film covering the epidermis of leaves, young shoots and other aerial plant organs without periderm. Although the cuticle is usually considered independently from the underlying polysaccharide cell wall of the epidermis, the two structures are physically associated and have some overlapping functions. This phenomenon has been observed in a wax-deficient tomato mutant (Smirnova et al., 2013), a range of Arabidopsis mutants with abnormal cuticles (Yephremov et al., 1999; Wellesen et al., 2001; Kurdyukov et al., 2006a; Bird et al., 2007), and transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing a secreted fungal cutinase (Sieber et al., 2000). - Language: English. In this case, increased cuticular permeability appears to enhance the diffusion of inoculum-derived elicitors that induce the production of small, polar antifungal compounds, which in turn inhibit B. cinerea growth (Bessire et al., 2007). The mechanism of intracellular trafficking of fatty acid from the chloroplast to the ER remains unknown, although heterologous expression of Arabidopsis LACS1, LACS2, and LACS3 facilitates fatty acid uptake in yeast, suggesting that this class of enzymes may play dual roles in fatty acid trafficking and activation (Pulsifer et al., 2012). The relative order of these steps is not known, although it has been shown that the ω-hydroxylation precedes the midchain hydroxylation and that the final product of these steps is most likely a dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid-CoA ester (Li-Beisson et al., 2009). 2. A new paradigm has recently been proposed for the diffusion of polar compounds and water across the cuticle. Experiments further addressing this hypothesis will be particularly interesting, given the surprising finding that the cer9 mutant actually exhibits enhanced drought tolerance and water use efficiency (Lü et al., 2012). Journal of South American Earth Sciences. Markus Riederer, Julius-von-Sachs-Institut für Biowissenschaften, Universität Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany. [Markus Riederer; Caroline Muller;] -- A much clearer picture is now emerging of the fine structure of the plant cuticle and its surface, the composition of cuticular waxes and the biosynthetic pathways leading to them. In the case of the dihydroxyacyl cutin precursor 2-MHG, the glycerol moiety imparts sufficient polarity to allow aqueous solubility at low millimolar concentrations (Yeats et al., 2012b). Chemical analysis indicated that the Arabidopsis hth mutant has wild-type wax levels but abnormal cutin quantity and composition. The C16 acyl-CoA is then a substrate for the fatty acid elongase (FAE) complex. EMBED. Scanning electron microscopy can reveal the elaborate and diverse morphologies of epicuticular wax crystals (Fig. Indeed, in recent years, there have been many instances of unexpected associations between the cuticle and diverse aspects of plant biology. Nevertheless, a complex regulatory network that responds to developmental and environmental cues, mediated by hormones, transcription factors, and posttranscriptional regulation, is beginning to emerge. Reduced transcript levels of putative MYB96 and CER4 orthologs were also observed in the irg1 mutant, which is consistent with the wax phenotype. Buy Biology of the Plant Cuticle (Annual Plant Reviews): 23 Volume 23 by Riederer, Markus, Muller, Caroline (ISBN: 9781405132688) from Amazon's Book Store. Annual Plant Reviews, Biology of the Plant Cuticle: Riederer, Markus, Muller, Caroline: Amazon.sg: Books Furthermore, heterologous expression of the combination of CER1, CER3, a cytochrome b5, and LACS1 in yeast resulted in the formation of very-long-chain alkanes (Bernard et al., 2012). Fast and free shipping free returns cash on delivery available on eligible purchase. Markus Riederer, Julius-von-Sachs-Institut für Biowissenschaften, Universität Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany. Similarly, the amount of cutin is not necessarily an indication of cuticular water permeability (CWP). In any case, the ultimate product of the intracellular steps of cutin biosynthesis is likely to be 2-monoacylglyceryl esters of cutin monomers. . © 2013 American Society of Plant Biologists. The field concerned with the diffusive transport of lipophilic organic non-electrolytes across the plant cuticle has reached a state of maturity. Annual Plant Reviews: Biology of the Plant Cuticle: Riederer, Markus, Muller, Caroline: Amazon.com.au: Books Moreover, it is not known how branching or cross linking of cutin affects cuticle function, and the identification of additional cutin synthases will allow this to be investigated using genetic approaches. The cuticular wax composition is plant species-specific and can differ between plant organs and developmental stages –. The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. However, it is now clear that cuticles play numerous other roles in plant development, physiology, and interactions with the abiotic environment and other organisms. 0 Ratings 0 Want to read; 0 Currently reading; 0 Have read; This edition published in 2006 by Blackwell Pub. Several wax biosynthetic genes have been shown to be induced by bacterial pathogens (Raffaele et al., 2008) and during infestation of wheat (Triticum aestivum) by the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor; Kosma et al., 2010), but in general, the relevance of the induction of cuticle synthesis to pest or pathogen resistance is poorly understood. 1A). To this end, further work aimed at understanding the ecophysiological functions of the cuticle in defined mutant backgrounds, as well as in genetically tractable wild species, will provide a framework for understanding the complex interaction of structure, composition, and function of cuticles (Yeats et al., 2012a). Ed. The author responsible for distribution of materials integral to the findings presented in this article in accordance with the policy described in the Instructions for Authors (www.plantphysiol.org) is: Jocelyn K.C. The plant cuticle acts as a hydrophobic layer to protect land plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. Christopher E. Jeffree, Science Faculty Electron Microscope Facility, Edinburgh, UK. Annual Plant Reviews, Volume 23 A much clearer picture is now emerging of the fine structure of the plant cuticle and its surface, the composition of cuticular waxes and the biosynthetic pathways leading to them. An additional family of proteins, composed of CER2, CER26, and CER26-like, appears to be required for the elongation of fatty acids to lengths greater than 28C (Haslam et al., 2012; Pascal et al., 2013). In this case, the alcohol is coupled to an acyl group derived from fatty acyl-CoA. Monomeric composition can provide a “parts list,” but the relative abundance of possible linkages in the polymer is difficult to determine, largely due to the difficulty of solubilizing intact cutin (Serra et al., 2012). Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog. Thus, cutin plays an important role as a physical barrier to many pathogens, yet extreme deficiencies in Arabidopsis can result in increased resistance to some pathogens by way of a secondary, but not well understood, mechanism that involves the induction of plant defenses. SERRATE is a C2H2 zinc finger protein that is required for microRNA biogenesis, and hypomorphic alleles exhibit numerous developmental defects, including serrated leaf margins (Dong et al., 2008). Mechanical properties of cuticles and their primary determinants. Primary alcohols can be produced from VLCFA-CoA by fatty acyl-CoA reductase, an enzyme encoded by CER4 in Arabidopsis (Rowland et al., 2006). Typical cutin monomers and polymeric structure. Mangifera indica It is thought that this self-cleaning surface helps to prevent the buildup of dust that would block sunlight and slow photosynthesis and that this could also play an important role in washing away pathogen spores before they germinate. UV light in the UV-B spectrum is a considerable portion of the daylight that reaches the terrestrial surface, and it can threaten plant life by damaging DNA, the photosynthetic apparatus, and membrane lipids (Rozema et al., 1997). A major remaining question is how hydrophobic cuticle precursors are transported across the hydrophilic environment of the polysaccharide cell wall to the cuticle. Written in English. Despite the importance of cutin in plant-pathogen interactions, the first surface encountered by foliar pathogens is formed by epicuticular wax crystals and films. Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Annual Plant Reviews: Biology of the Plant Cuticle: 23: Riederer, Markus, Muller, Caroline: Amazon.sg: Books All Rights Reserved. Mining the surface proteome of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit for proteins associated with cuticle biogenesis. In terms of photosynthesis, there is likely a tradeoff between a self-cleaning surface and the increased dispersion of light by epicuticular wax crystals, as discussed below. Buy Biology of the Plant Cuticle by Riederer, Markus, Muller, Caroline online on Amazon.ae at best prices. It consists of lipid. For example, overexpression of WXP1 from Medicago truncatula in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) induced wax production (Zhang et al., 2005). Anatomy of a eudicot leaf. 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