- Reference is something haring physical existence. Lexical Semantics: Reference •Words also refer to (concrete or abstract) things •reference to specific entity (a referent) •Bill, the White House, Paris •reference to set of entities •person, house, city •cf. Semantics deals with the literal meaning of sentences. Unfortunately, the path is rugged and progress is slow. ... Semantics, is the study of . RefeRence Reference deals with the relationship between language and the world. Sense and Reference, p. 3 calculus to incorporate Frege’s insights. Pragmatics deals with what ... depends on a contextually-determined reference of the demonstrative. SENSE RELATIONS I SYNONYMY & ANTONYMY 1.SYNONYMY • refers to ‘sameness of m.’, s. relation in which different l. forms have the ?same? Sense relations1: Reference, denotation and connotation Sense, reference and denotation are three aspects of what is commonly conveyed by the loose term ‘meaning’. A term's reference IS the object it refers to. Reference, Sense, and Lexical Relations An important traditional distinction in lexical semantics, as most influentially articulated by Frege (1980 [1892]) and Saussure (1983 [1916]), is between reference and sense. m. • synonymy=symmetric hyponymy e.g.all children are kids-all kids are children • English-rich in synonyms (2 vocabulary sources) REFERENCE SENSE 4. The reference and sense of a sign are to be distinguished from the [p25] associated idea. The Sense/Reference Distinction in Constructive Semantics PER MARTIN-LÖF Transcription of a lecture read at a conference on Frege organised by Göran Sundholm at Leiden, 25 August 2001. A fourth, very important aspect of meaning is connotation. Its sense is HOW it refers to that object." "sense and reference are two different aspects of the meaning of some kinds of terms. Sense and Reference Foundations of Semantics LING 130 James Pustejovsky Thanks to Dan Wedgewood of U. Edinburgh for use of some slides A picture of the grammar But remember what we had to do to get from linguistically encoded meaning to the proposition expressed:!Assign reference The world X1 x2 language The world y X language Both reference and sense are different but related aspects of semantics • 2. We deal with relationships inside the language. * * Frege’s paper, “On Sense and Reference,” is widely considered the beginning of analytic philosophy. SemanticS ‘’Semantics is the study of meaning in language.’’ ‘’Linguistic semantics is the study of meaning that is used by humans to express themselves through language.’’ (Hurford, Heasley & Smith, 2007) 3. I guess the Reference is: A [former] President of the USA (George Bush senior); The reference of a word is the thing, event, or state that it points to in the world. If semantics is a science, it cannot operate For example: 'The husband of Barbara Bush is the President who succeeded Ronald Reagan.' Reference - By means of reference a speaker indicates which thing or people are being talked about . PDF | The paper delves into the semantic field to establish sense as an important category within the domain of conceptual or cognitive meaning. We won’t be able to go into the issues here. If the reference of a sign is an object perceivable by the senses, my idea of it is an internal image, [5] arising from memories of sense impressions which I have had and acts, both internal and external, which I … You can find in in many anthologies. SPEAKER’S REFERENCE AND SEMANTIC REFERENCE’ SAUL KRIPKE 1 ... husband, the false Messiah), are all referential in Donnellan’s sense. definite, indefinite articles •a person, the person •Not all words contain a referent in the real world •unicorn Both reference and sense are different but related aspects of the demonstrative the issues here sense is HOW refers. 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