Note 1: It is important to distinguish between Chinookan languages and “Chinook jargon”. ASL and LSQ). The complete dictionary is available online through Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org. The possessive prefix for the third person singular feminine ("her") is –ga- when the noun itself is feminine, neuter, dual, or plural, it is preceded by the gender-number prefixes: but is-tca- when the noun itself is masculine, is preceded by the gender-number prefix: 2. 1801An epidemic (likely smallpox) strikes the Northwest Coast. Dell Hymes 1984: 365 . Chinookan definition: a language family comprising only Lower Chinook and Upper Chinook | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Then declined, was recorded by linguists in the 1930s, and died out by the early 1900s. The Chinookan Language Family Chinookan is a small family of languages spoken in Oregon and Washington along the Columbia River by Chinook peoples. The one change we haven’t yet accounted for is the č (ch) and č́ (c’h) in Chinookan. Chinook Dyk 1933 A grammar of Wishram Nichols 1992 Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time Silverstein 1976 Hierarchy of Features and Ergativity Silverstein 1978 Deixis and deducibility in a Wasco-Wishram passive of evidence Language is now extinct. The possessive prefix for the first person singular "my" is –gE (Wishram-g-,-k-;- x̩ Classification open Upper Chinook; expand all; collapse all; Comments on subclassification. For Chinookan, it’s known that: Putting together what I’ve said so far, I’ll claim, with a slight bit of boldness, that Chinookans took, Salish ćxÌ£-íĺs (t’sxÌ£-ílʔs) as Chinookan ćxíls (t’sxíls).Â, The important observation here is that for a Chinookan speaker, the psychological reality of a pronunciation ćxíĺs (t’sxíls), which I think we’re probably seeing from Q’lti, would be that it was the expected Diminutive form of a “Normal” cxÌ£ílÅ¡ (tsxÌ£ílsh)!Â, And I suppose Chinookans would’ve varied between saying Diminutive/affectionate ćxíĺs (t’sxíls) and Normal cxÌ£ílÅ¡ (tsxÌ£ílsh), as the situation warranted.Â, That right there already mutates several of the original Salish sounds:Â. And definitely it is found in the Chinookan system of consonant mutations. Nominal suffixes indicate emphasis or contrast, specificity, succession in time, definiteness, plurality, and time, location, or similarity. It had 69 speakers in 1990, of whom 7 were monolingual: five Wasco and two Wishram. ( Log Out /  1803 The U.S. purchases Louisiana from France and dramatically increases the nation’s size. Katlamat, Cathlamet) Lower Chinook (a.k.a. Chinookan languages consists of three languages with multiple varieties.There is some dispute over classification, and there are two ISO 639-3 codes assigned: chh (Chinook, Lower Chinook) and wac (Wasco-Wishram, Upper Chinook). Coastal Chinook) Clatsop Shoalwater (a.k.a. Upper Chinook definition: a Chinookan language of the Columbia River valley from the Deschutes River to the estuary | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Dell Hymes 1984: 365 . However, local Athabaskan languages are SOV, so this is probably a result of contact – a cross-language compromise. At Fort Vancouver, the language evolved and expanded, influenced by the diversity of its speakers. Change ). Verbs contain an initial tense or aspect prefix, ergative pronominal prefix, obligatory assaultive prefixed, dative prefix, reflexive/reciprocal/middle, adverbial, directional, and verb stem. Let’s look into that now.Â. Family division. (The vowel “i” in PNW languages was often heard by Whites as “ei”, thus the modern spelling in English using the letter “a”.) DICTIONARY OF THE CHINOOK JARGON… The Natítanui language, as spoken by Q'lti, and preserved in the 1894 "Chinook Texts", gives us clues about Chinuk Wawa's history. "We Should Lose Much by Their Absence": The Centrality of Chinookans and Kalapuyans to Life in Frontier Oregon. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Using Kiksht (Wishram / Wasco etc.) It was used by up to 100,000 speakers of 100 mother tongues in the 19th century. And those White “drifters” would’ve thus been hearing this word in the earliest phase of Chinuk Wawa known to us from historical records. In 2001, there were five remaining speakers of Wasco. It has SVO structure: Chinookan and Salishan are VSO, e.g., Haias olo tso naika [much hungry water I] "I'm very thirsty". Clatsop Plains spoke dialects of one language, called Lower Chinook. Most Chinook stories were recorded by the renowned anthropologist Melville Jacobs in the late '20s from a … During summer, temporary houses with sides of cattail mats and cedar bark roofs were convenient to move from one fishing location to the next. It includes part of his original introduction and the full text of the English-Chinook section of his dictionary. Chinookan Language Family Chinookan is a small family of languages spoken in Oregon and Washington along the Columbia River by Chinook peoples. That kind of consonant mutation is native to Chinookan, which uses it a good deal for Diminutive and Augmentative size- and emotional symbolism. ... (Upper Coquille) Miwok. Katlamat, Cathlamet) Lower Chinook (a.k.a. Skookum is the most common and popular Chinook word and still in popular use in British Columbia. Aside from certain secondary irregularities in the third person dual and third person plural which don't concern us, the pronominal subject of the transitive verb differs from the pronominal subject of the intransitive verb only in the case of the third person singular masculine and third person singular feminine, the difference between the two sets of forms being for the most part indicated by position and, in part, by the use of a "postpronominal" particle-g-which indicates that the preceding pronominal element is used as the subject of a transitive verb. 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