The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, pp. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The historical period of the Illyrian emperors proper begins with Claudius Gothicus in 268 and continues in 284 with the rise of Diocletian and the institution of the Tetrarchy. Thanks. Men of Illyrian or Thraco-Dacian origin however continued to be prominent in the Empire throughout the 4th century and beyond. vol. Its great positive role was that stopped the progress of the Romans in central … The term "Illyria" was also used in late antiquity to describe the western Balkan peninsula. Illyrius was a son of Phoenician Cadmus and his wife Harmonia. Other articles where Illyrian is discussed: Alexander the Great: Life: …and shattered a coalition of Illyrians who had invaded Macedonia. But the Slavs, who started their incursions into the Balkan Peninsula in the 6th century, had by the end of the 7th century settled throughout the Balkans, including the territories of ancient Illyria. As indicated in the first part of this article, the Romans had conquered Illyria (more or less twentieth-century Yugoslavia with parts of Albania, Hungary, and Austria) in a series of wars that had started in the third century BCE, when Rome got involved in a series of conflicts along the Adriatic shores. Instead, professional soldiers of humble origin who had risen through the ranks to the post of primus pilus (which also entailed admission to the equestrian order) were placed as heads of the legions and filled the army's command structure. The Roman province of Illyricum stretched from the Drilon River (the Drin, in modern Albania) in the south to Istria (modern Slovenia and Croatia) in the north and to the Savus (Sava) River in the east; its administrative centre was Salonae (near present-day Split) in Dalmatia. In the Roman period, Latin-speaking settlers from all over the Roman empire settled among the Illyrians and Roman soldiers were encouraged to retire in the region. Half of these inscriptions are found in and around the Roman colony located in the ancient city of Dyrrhachium. Illyrian gravestone from the 4th century BC According to the Greek mythology quoted by Apollodorus, Illyrius was a founder of Illyrian genus. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Agron, however, died suddenly, and during the minority of his son, his widow, Teuta, acted as regent. In Balkans: In the Roman Empire …rivers, became the province of Illyricum. The advance of these low-born provincials was facilitated by a major shift in imperial policy from the time of Gallienus (260–268) on, when higher military appointments ceased to be exclusively filled by senators. A strong tribal chieftain, however, could unite several tribes into a kingdom. Yet despite their formidable warrior culture, the Picts mysteriously vanished during the 10th century. The main source for these wars is Appian'sIllyrian Wars. The last Illyrian king, Genthius, surrendered in 168 bce. Illyrians spoke Illyrian languages, a group of Indo-European languages, which in ancient times perhaps had speakers in some parts in Southern Italy. 1, Chicago, MCMLXXIV. Historical linguists specializing in the languages of the region are divided among those who accept the presumption that Albanian is descended from Illyrian, those who hold that it is descended from a close relative of Illyrian, and those who insist that the current state of evidence is inadequate for reaching a definitive conclusion. Illyrians were a staple in the Roman army. Philip V of Macedonia aided his Illyrian neighbours and thus started a protracted war that ended with the conquest of the whole Balkan Peninsula by the Romans. Simultaneously, she antagonized Rome, which finally sent a large fleet to the eastern shores of the Adriatic. Teuta refused and one of the two ambassadors was killed on the sail back to Italy, perhaps from a random pirate, or perhaps ordered by Teuta herself. It was traversed by a Roman road, and Illyria’s ports served as important trade and transit links between Rome and eastern Europe. The Roman empire later defeated pirates of Illyrian, who were trying to overtake roman ships. Meanwhile, a rumour of his death had precipitated a revolt of Theban democrats; other Greek states favoured Thebes, and the Athenians, urged on by Demosthenes, voted help. [1] In the 2nd and 3rd centuries, the Illyricum and the other Danubian provinces (Raetia, Pannonia, Moesia) held the largest concentration of Roman forces (12 legions, up to a third of the total army), and were a major recruiting ground. At the height of their power, the Illyrian frontiers extended from the Danube River southward to the Adriatic Sea and from there eastward to the Šar Mountains. The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, pp. Illyria, northwestern part of the Balkan Peninsula, inhabited from about the 10th century bce onward by the Illyrians, an Indo-European people. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. In 395 ce the empire was finally divided, and Illyria east of the Drinus River (the Drina, in the central Balkans) became part of the Eastern Empire. "An extinct Indo-European language spoken in Illyria and known only from scattered personal and geographical names preserved in Greek and Roman sources. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Albanians want to claim even the Roman empire as Albanian, by showing that Illyrians became Roman Emperors. 261–263, The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, p. 264, The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire: From the First Century A.D. to the Third by Edward N. Luttwak, page 178, "high-grade cavalry (equites Illyriciani)", "Roman Emperors and Identity Constructions in Modern Serbia", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Illyrian_emperors&oldid=980384033, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 September 2020, at 07:21. 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